[10] Linda K. Pritchard uses statistical data to show that compared to the rest of New York State, the Ohio River Valley in the lower Midwest, and the country as a whole, the religiosity of the Burned-over District was typical rather than exceptional. While the movement unified the colonies and boosted church growth, experts say it also caused division among those who supported it and those who rejected it. Soon after, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (AME Zion) was founded as another denomination in New York City. Lyman Beecher was a Presbyterian clergyman, temperance movement leader, and the father of several noted leaders, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, and Catharine Beecher, and a leader of the Second Great Awakening of … Home Menu Toggle; second great awakening leaders Postmillennialist theology dominated American Protestantism in the first half of the 19th century. The camp meeting was a religious service of several days' length with preachers. The Second Great Awakening led to new religious movements such as the Holiness Movement and the Mormons, and helped groups like the Methodist Church grow.[2]. Baptists and Methodists in the South preached to slaveholders and slaves alike. Johnson, Charles A. The third and final phase (1825–35) stemmed from the activities of evangelist Charles Grandison Finney, who began his revivalism in small towns in western New York in the 1820s but eventually conducted revival meetings in the largest… The Methodist Church used circuit riders to reach people in frontier locations. "Black Harry" Hosier, an illiterate freedman who drove Francis Asbury on his circuits, proved to be able to memorize large passages of the Bible verbatim and became a cross-over success, as popular among white audiences as the black ones Asbury had originally intended for him to minister. There were also societies that broadened their focus from traditional religious concerns to larger societal ones. [29] His sermon at Thomas Chapel in Chapeltown, Delaware, in 1784 was the first to be delivered by a black preacher directly to a white congregation.[30]. Converts were taught that to achieve salvation they needed not just to repent personal sin but also work for the moral perfection of society, which meant eradicating sin in all its forms. State legislatures[which?] 268,882 Pages. To a lesser extent the Presbyterians also gained members, particularly with the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in sparsely settled areas. The other was abolitionism, which wanted to end slavery. Griffin, Clifford S. "Religious Benevolence as Social Control, 1815–1860". [24]:368, Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the Social Gospel of the late 19th century. Baptists and Methodist revivals were successful in some parts of the Tidewater South, where an increasing number of common planters, plain folk, and slaves were converted. All seven of his sons, including Henry Ward Beecher, followed their father into the ministry. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. The Second Great Awakening partly reshaped American religion by making it (A) more dependent on a college-educated clergy. Thanks Comments; Report Despite being called the "greatest orator in America" by Benjamin Rush[31] and one of the best in the world by Bishop Thomas Coke,[30] Hosier was repeatedly passed over for ordination and permitted no vote during his attendance at the Christmas Conference that formally established American Methodism. It is sometimes overlooked, but it is important. [44] More active participation in politics by more segments of the population brought religious and moral issues into the political sphere. [18] Cane Ridge was also instrumental in fostering what became known as the Restoration Movement, which consisted of non-denominational churches committed to what they viewed as the original, fundamental Christianity of the New Testament. 5.0 3 votes 3 votes Rate! [17], As a result of the Revival of 1800, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church emerged in Kentucky and became a strong support of the revivalist movement. However, women took other public roles; for example, relaying testimonials about their conversion experience, or assisting sinners (both male and female) through the conversion process. These organizations were primarily sponsored by affluent women. [24]:368 While the leaders of one of the two primary groups making up this movement, Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell, resisted what they saw as the spiritual manipulation of the camp meetings, the revivals contributed to the development of the other major branch, led by Barton W. They formed political movements, including the Liberty Party, the Free Soil Party and the Republican Party (United States). He had 13 children, many of whom became notable people, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher, Charles Beecher, Edward Beecher, Isabella Beecher Hooker, Catharine Beecher … From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Great_Awakening&oldid=6896292, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. From the 1850s to the 1880s, Beecher … Beecher's Bibles Beecher City, Illinois Harriet Beecher Stowe House (Ohio) Second Great Awakening. Beecher's Bibles Beecher City, Illinois Harriet Beecher Stowe House (Ohio) Second Great Awakening. [34], Despite the predominance of women in the movement, they were not formally indoctrinated or given leading ministerial positions. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revival meetings and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. Henry Ward Beecher (Litchfield, Connecticut; 24 de junio de 1813 - Brooklyn, Nueva York; 8 de marzo de 1887) fue un clérigo congregacionalista estadounidense y prominente abolicionista de la esclavitud.. Biografía. How did the people of the Second Great Awakening think they would bring about a Golden Age in America? They founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) in Philadelphia. The Second Great Awakening occurred in several episodes and over different denominations; however, the revivals were very similar. The Second Great Awakening began in the last decade of the 18th century and reached its peak in the second half of the 19th century, in the revivalist oratory and hymnody of camp ... and Henry Ward Beecher provided high drama, and elicited intense emotional responses from the congregation. Lyman Beecher (October 12, 1775 – January 10, 1863) was an important minister during the Second Great Awakening.He was a Presbyterian minister. As a result, the numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists. In an effort to give sermons that would resonate with the congregation, ministers stressed Christ's humility and forgiveness, in what the historian Barbara Welter calls a "feminization" of Christianity. Whitefield ignited the Great Awakening, a major religious revival that became the first major mass movement in American history. – Henry Ward Beecher. [16][17] Presbyterians and Methodists initially worked together to host the early camp meetings, but the Presbyterians eventually became less involved because of the noise and often raucous activities that occurred during the protracted sessions. [13], In the newly settled frontier regions, the revival was implemented through camp meetings. The congregations of these denomination were committed to individuals' achieving a personal relationship with Christ. Preacher and reformer, was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, the son of Lyman Beecher, a leader of the Second Great Awakening, and Roxana Foote. "The Invention of the Great Awakening, 1795–1842". Following in the footsteps of his father and his five brothers, Henry Ward displayed an early interest in religion. The Disestablishment of Religion and Lyman Beecher (he is a good example of the Great Awakening) One of the issues coming out of the Revolution is, what do we do … The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. The Great Awakening notably altered the religious climate in the American colonies. Religion. A 1932 source estimated at least three female converts to every two male converts between 1798 and 1826. George Fredrickson argues that Postmillennial theology "was an impetus to the promotion of Progressive reforms, as historians have frequently pointed out. [24]:368 The Southern phase of the Awakening "was an important matrix of Barton Stone's reform movement" and shaped the evangelistic techniques used by both Stone and the Campbells. [42] In the midst of shifts in theology and church polity, American Christians began progressive movements to reform society during this period. [citation needed] Another key component of the revivalists' techniques was the camp meeting. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. Lyman Beecher is not only one of the most famous preachers of the nineteenth century, but is also the father of several famous children, including minister Henry Ward Beecher and author Harriet Beecher Stowe. The Second Great Awakening led to a period of antebellum social reform and an emphasis on salvation by institutions. They moved to Lawrenceburg, Indiana, where Beecher had a job as a minister. The revival also inspired slaves to demand freedom. Young people (those under 25) also converted in greater numbers, and were the first to convert. [33] Despite white attempts to control independent African-American congregations, especially after the Nat Turner uprising of 1831, a number of African-American congregations managed to maintain their separation as independent congregations in Baptist associations. "[7] During the Second Great Awakening of the 1830s, some diviners expected the millennium to arrive in a few years. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. It led to the founding of several well known colleges, seminaries and mission societies. Stephen Meardon, "From Religious Revivals to Tariff Rancor: Preaching Free Trade and Protection during the Second American Party System,". [6] The movement quickly spread throughout Kentucky, Indiana, Tennessee, and southern Ohio, as well as other regions of the United States and Canada. 4 (March 1991), p. 1218 and 1237. International Conference of Reformed Churches, North American Presbyterian and Reformed Council, 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ethnocultural politics in the United States, "Backcountry Religious Ways: The North British Field-Meeting Style", "Religious Transformation and the Second Great Awakening", Introducing Black Harry Hoosier: The History Behind Indiana's Namesake, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) in the U.S. and Canada, Christian churches and churches of Christ, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Great_Awakening&oldid=994589470, History of Christianity in the United States, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [3] As the most effective form of evangelizing during this period, revival meetings cut across geographical boundaries. [32] With the growth in congregations and churches, Baptist associations formed in Virginia, for instance, as well as Kentucky and other states. [45], Historians stress the common understanding among participants of reform as being a part of God's plan. [21], The Advent Movement emerged in the 1830s and 1840s in North America, and was preached by ministers such as William Miller, whose followers became known as Millerites. "The Frontier Camp Meeting: Contemporary and Historical Appraisals, 1805–1840". [15], The Revival of 1800 in Logan County, Kentucky, began as a traditional Presbyterian sacramental occasion. New religious movements emerged during the Second Great Awakening, such as Adventism, Dispensationalism, and the Latter Day Saint movement. Second Great Awakening Timothy Dwight, Lyman Beecher , Nathaniel W. Taylor, and Asahel Nettleton. Known commonly as antebellum reform, this phenomenon included reforms against the consumption of alcohol, for women's rights and abolition of slavery, and a multitude of other issues faced by society. Members of these groups acted as apostles for the faith, and also as educators and exponents of northeastern urban culture. [3] One of these was the Temperance Movement, which believed that drinking alcohol was not good for society. The name refers to belief in the soon Second Advent of Jesus (popularly known as the Second coming) and resulted in several major religious denominations, including Seventh-day Adventists and Advent Christians.[22]. The first informal camp meeting began in June, when people began camping on the grounds of the Red River Meeting House. The revivals also followed an arc of great emotional power, with an emphasis on the individual's sins and need to turn to Christ, and a sense of restoring personal salvation. Birdsall, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening and the New England Social Order". [43], The religious enthusiasm of the Second Great Awakening was echoed by the new political enthusiasm of the Second Party System. [38][39], Changing demographics of gender also affected religious doctrine. Historians named the Second Great Awakening in the context of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1750s and of the Third Great Awakening of the late 1850s to early 1900s. The people of the Second Great Awakening thought they could bring about a Golden Age in America through religion. Conversions and congregations started with the First Great Awakening, resulting in Baptist and Methodist preachers being authorized among slaves and free African Americans more than a decade before 1800. It impacts race and religion and sex and gender. They believed in the perfectibility of people and were highly moralistic in their endeavors. Photographer name unreadable on label. 19th Century chromolithograph of a photo of Henry Ward Beecher. By the late 1840s, however, the great day had receded to the distant future, and postmillennialism became a more passive religious dimension of the wider middle-class pursuit of reform and progress. Ordinary people were encouraged to make a personal connection with God, instead of relying on a minister. Create or edit article. Evangelists often directly addressed issues such as slavery, greed, and poverty, laying the groundwork for later reform movements. Rate! Beecher was influential in the Second Great Awakening, along with Charles Finney, Barton Stone and Peter Cartwright. [11], On the American frontier, evangelical denominations, especially Methodists and Baptists, sent missionary preachers and exhorters to meet the people in the backcountry in an effort to support the growth of church membership and the formation of new congregations. The outpouring of religious fervor and revival began in Kentucky and Tennessee in the 1790s and early 1800s among the Presbyterians, Methodists and Baptists. It is not clear why women converted in larger numbers than men. [41] The influence of the Awakening continued in the form of more secular movements. Christians thus had a duty to purify society in preparation for that return. – Henry Ward Beecher. The Second Great Awakening served as an "organizing process" that created "a religious and educational infrastructure" across the western frontier that encompassed social networks, a religious journalism that provided mass communication, and church-related colleges. His rhetorical focus on Christ's love has influenced mainstream Christianity to this day. It is a much larger awakening than the first one. As a student at Amherst College, he helped found an abolitionist organization, which was promptly shut down by the faculty. The idea of restoring a "primitive" form of Christianity grew in popularity in the U.S. after the American Revolution. [37] Through women's positions in these organizations, women gained influence outside of the private sphere. The Second and Third Awakenings were part of a much larger Romantic religious movement that was sweeping across England, Scotland, and Germany.[1]. In 1826, during the Second Great Awakening, Protestant faiths drew new converts across the United States and a renewed focus fell upon proper social and religious behaviors. Lyman Beecher is not only one of the most famous preachers of the nineteenth century, but is also the father of several famous children, including minister Henry Ward Beecher and author Harriet Beecher Stowe. The awakening brought comfort in the face of uncertainty as a result of the socio-political changes in America. The Second Great Awakening led to two movements in reform, that is, changing laws and behaviors to make society better. (B) more reliant on women as members and social reformers. People such as Harriet Beecher Stowe and William Lloyd Garrison wrote books and newspapers about how slavery should stop. Especially in the Baptist Church, African Americans were welcomed as members and as preachers. Henry Ward Beecher, (born June 24, 1813, Litchfield, Conn., U.S.—died March 8, 1887, Brooklyn, N.Y.), liberal U.S. Congregational minister whose oratorical skill and social concern made him one of the most influential Protestant spokesmen of his time.. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to new Protestant denominations. [8][9] Charles Finney, a leading revivalist active in the area, coined the term. Beecher and his peers were greatly influenced by the Second Great Awakening, a Protestant religious revival of the early 1800s, firmly committed to abolishing slavery. A year later, in August 1801, an even larger sacrament occasion that is generally considered to be America's first camp meeting was held at Cane Ridge in Bourbon County, Kentucky, under Barton W. Stone (1772–1844) with numerous Presbyterian, Baptist, and Methodist ministers participating in the services. They began efforts to reform prisons and care for the handicapped and mentally ill. The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious movement in the United States. [26] The Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, both active in Utica, NY, were highly organized and financially sophisticated women's organizations responsible for many of the evangelical converts of the New York frontier.[27]. [32], Women, who made up the majority of converts during the Awakening, played a crucial role in its development and focus. [24]:368 Publication and education societies promoted Christian education; most notable among them was the American Bible Society, founded in 1816. (C less socially and theologically diverse. Main Menu. In 1837, Beecher married Eunice White Bullard. Historians named the Second Great Awakening in the context of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1750s and of the Third Great Awakening of the late 1850s to early 1900s. [7], In the early days of the nineteenth century, western New York State was called the "burned-over district" because of the highly publicized revivals that crisscrossed the region. The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert. FANDOM. Churches with roots in this movement include the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada. Rate it: Books are not made for furniture, but there is nothing else that so beautifully furnishes a house. Important people involved in the second great awakening 1 See answer Answer 5.0 /5 1. guy1162buu +3 kvargli6h and 3 others learned from this answer It was led by people such as Charles Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, Edward Everett and Joseph Smith. Interest in transforming the world was applied to mainstream political action, as temperance activists, antislavery advocates, and proponents of other variations of reform sought to implement their beliefs into national politics. As a result, local churches saw their roles in society in purifying the world through the individuals to whom they could bring salvation, and through changes in the law and the creation of institutions. The Methodists had an efficient organization that depended on itinerant ministers, known as "circuit riders", who sought out people in remote frontier locations. Women's prayer groups were an early and socially acceptable form of women's organization. Barbara Leslie Epstein, The Politics of Domesticity. [12], The denominations that encouraged the revivals were based on an interpretation of man's spiritual equality before God, which led them to recruit members and preachers from a wide range of classes and all races. [23]:89–94 This desire to restore a purer form of Christianity without an elaborate hierarchy contributed to the development of many groups during the Second Great Awakening, including the Latter Day Saints, Baptists and Shakers. Most of the Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolutionary War settled in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and down the spine of the Appalachian Mountains in present-day Maryland and Virginia, where Presbyterian emigrants and Baptists held large outdoor gatherings in the years prior to the war. Born in New Haven, Connecticut, on October 12, 1775, Lyman Beecher was a Presbyterian minister who co-founded the American Temperance Society in 1826 and is often credited as one of the driving forces behind the Second Great Awakening in the early part of the 19th century.. Bratt, James D. "Religious Anti-revivalism in Antebellum America", Carwardine, Richard J. [2] It rejected the skepticism, deism, Unitarianism, and rationalism left over from the American Enlightenment,[3] about the same time that similar movements flourished in Europe. Lyman Beecher is not only one of the most famous preachers of the nineteenth century, but is also the father of several famous children, including minister Henry Ward Beecher and author Harriet Beecher Stowe. This duty extended beyond American borders to include Christian Restorationism. Postmillennialists believed that Christ will return to earth after the "Millennium", which could entail either a literal 1,000 years or a figurative "long period" of peace and happiness. In 1800, out of African-American revival meetings in Virginia, a plan for slave rebellion was devised by Gabriel Prosser, although the rebellion was discovered and crushed before it started. Mathews, Donald G. "The Second Great Awakening as an organizing process, 1780–1830: An hypothesis". Beecher was influential in the Second Great Awakening, along with Charles Finney, Barton Stone and Peter Cartwright. Search Sign In Don't have an account? It was led by people such as Charles Grandison Finney, Henry Ward Beecher, Lyman Beecher, E dward Everett and Joseph Smith. Through his religious studies, Beecher became enrapt in the question of slavery. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revival meetings and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. Conforti, Joseph. [41], Protestant religious revival in the early 19th-century United States, George M. Fredrickson, "The Coming of the Lord: The Northern Protestant Clergy and the Civil War Crisis," in. In the 1830s, female moral reform societies rapidly spread across the North making it the first predominantly female social movement. In addition to his own achievements, Beecher fathered 13 children, several of whom had significant … New York: Octagon Books, 1976, 139, Barbara Welter, "The Feminization of American Religion: 1800–1860," in. "The Second Great Awakening in the Urban Centers: An Examination of Methodism and the 'New Measures, Cott, Nancy F. "Young Women in the Second Great Awakening in New England,". "Falling for the Lord: Shame, Revivalism, and the Origins of the Second Great Awakening.". Varel, David A. [28] Social activism influenced abolition groups and supporters of the Temperance movement. These outdoor religious gatherings originated from field meetings and the Scottish Presbyterians' "Holy Fairs", which were brought to America in the mid-eighteenth century from Ireland, Scotland, and Britain's border counties. Beecher married three times, after becoming a widower twice, and fathered 13 children. Henry Ward Beecher was regarded as the most popular Christian minister in the United States for more than 30 years of his life. Register Familypedia. This differed from the Calvinists' belief in predestination as outlined in the Westminster Confession of Faith, which emphasized the inability of men to save themselves and decreed that the only way to be saved was by God's electing grace. This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 14:32. Due to the efforts of such leaders as Stone and Alexander Campbell (1788–1866), the camp meeting revival spread religious enthusiasm and became a major mode of church expansion, especially for the Methodists and Baptists. He was also a co-founder of the American Temperance Society. Subsequent meetings followed at the nearby Gasper River and Muddy River congregations. [35] Women also took crucial roles in the conversion and religious upbringing of children. Thus, evangelical converts were leading figures in a variety of 19th century reform movements. Lyman Beecher. This page was last changed on 11 April 2020, at 13:05. A primitive faith based on the Bible alone promised a way to sidestep the competing claims of the many denominations available and for congregations to find assurance of being right without the security of an established national church. By the early 19th century, independent African-American congregations numbered in the several hundreds in some cities of the South, such as Charleston, South Carolina, and Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia. Nicely framed, 13.75 x 16.75, art is 11 x 14 across geographical.. 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